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Chris Salomon

Chris Salomon is the programmer of the excellent Vectrex V-Frogger.
<<Extensive Technical Notes follow the end of this interview>>

MT> Why don't we begin by having you tell us a bit about your background with computers and programming..
CS> Well. It all started of with those Pong type of video games. Dunno exactly when, probably in the mid to late 70's. As a kid I really liked those, but we never had one at home, I used to play them at a friend's place. Then came the VCS 2600. I'm was not a first hour 2600 kid, I bought one of my own when Pac-man hit the scene. After that I descended into more computerish 'toys'. First experiences were with a friends ZX 81. After that I owned a C64, Amiga, PC, PC, PC, PC (funny how long those Commodore machines lasted till I 'needed' a new one compared to the 'need' to get a new PC). I played a lot on them, but I also programmed them as well. In many different languages, like BASIC, Assembler, Pascal, C... And now... I'm nearly finished studying computer science. (If I weren't that lazy when things I don't like doing were concerned, I would have finished ages ago...) And I have a job as an application developer. (financial software, programming in Java... sound boring ey?)

MT> It's amazing that someone, such as yourself, which had never seen or played an actual Vectrex, chose to try to reprogram an application (Keith Wilkins Vectrex Emulator) for the system. How did this happen?
CS> When Vectrex first came to life in the early eighties, I really enjoyed video games. I read Video Gaming Magazins regularly. There I saw the Vectrex and the magazine made a great fuss about the system. And I was really intrigued by it. I wanted one, but I never got one. It was sort of love at the first sight. Regrettably I never got one at that time, otherwise I might have even fonder memories of the thing. As I look at myself today, I'm not the same as 15 or so years ago. I spent much of my free time playing games. I still do that to some extent, but totally different games. Today I like RPG and turn based strategy games (like Homam 3!!!). But back than I was more sort of an 'action' guy. I remember well, many hours spend in front of action games like VCS Yars Revenge, Defender and the like. Today I wouldn't really play these games to that extent, and I never really played any Vectrex games like that. So some of the more fascinating memories were never shared with Vectrex, and never will be. Still I would rather program another Vectrex emulator than a VCS 2600 emulator, or even a C64 emulator. So the answer to WHY is: I just like the thing!

MT> How would one go about programming a vectrex game?"
CS> I had an advantage over other MODERN Vectrex programmers. I did some serious exploration of the hardware and how it works in order to be able to emulate it acurately. I'm not denying that others explored it, probably they were technically more versed than I am, but I really think programming on DVE helped a lot! (BTW. By now MESS emulation of Vectrex is supperior to that of DVE appart from the Lightpen, but I guess that'll come in time, you did a great job Mathis!)

Knowledge of any assembler helps. If you know one, you know much about others. I had experience with 6510, 68000, and x86. Find an assembler you are comfortable with. I used one not implemented by any other 'modern' Vectrex programmer. Don't learn 6809 yet... learn by doing :-)) Get information about the system. By now there are two good starters, one from me, the other from Christopher. They'll get you going. The least thing you need is an dissassembled ROM listing. That's probably where all 'moderns' started off. Play with it and other sources you can get. I was using DVE to get started, but a Vectrex interface will be even better, most certainly in the long run. John knows more about it.

At some stage you need some idea of the game you want to write. And MORE THAN ANYTHING ELSE: YOU NEED ENDURANCE!!!

If one is only slightly gifted, it is no problem to start programming a game. But it is finishing it, that involves HARD WORK. I started a few dozen projects over the last years, and only a handfull came to fruition. If you don't have other people who support you (or you have an iron will of your own) finishing things is the hardest part. Look at Keiths DVE... He started it years ago, but finished it only after John gave him the fire by programming a Vectrex game. Look at Christopher who started Omega Chase much earlier than I started V-Frogger. But he too only finished it after me slapping him in the face with V-Frogger (or so to speak). Clay never finished his Moon Lander. Tomsoft never finished his Lunar Lander. We never saw a finished version of that defender clone, neither of Spike goes Skiing. Summer went by and we heard nothing from cologne or belgium. I was swallowing hard seeing the guy had four vectrex games on schedule, I dearly hope he finishes them, but than again... I wouldn't be surprised if he didn't. I really draw my hat before John at this stage. He has a half dozen games on schedule, and as we know him, he finishes them. I might think of myself as a good programmer and I do finish things (once in a while), but what he does really impresses me. Not in a technical point of view, but nonetheless, he more than many others deserves credit for keeping vectrex alive!

MT> How much of your life has been lost bringing V-Frogger to life?
CS> How much of your life has been lost bringing V-Frogger to life?? Depends on your point of view. I started programming vectrex with V-PONG. I did not particulary want to write a game for the system and publish it. It was more like exploring the thing, 'cause I wanted DVE to be able to be used as a developing tool for programmers. And I didn't really know what vectrex programmers needed, so I decided to program some 'game'. Pong was simple and it was an easy starter. I did it in about 4 hours. I had wanted it to be more than it is now, if you look at the source you will see references to different levels and other code to move the ball slower or faster... but than again... I didn't find Pong THAT interesting.

But I realized I liked programming Vectrex. And I did write a Frogger clone before (for PC) and I like Frogger and Vectrex didn't have one. So I started thinking about it. LOOK AT THE TEXT FROM VFROGGER for more on that history.

In the long run: I guess it took about 20 days working about 8 hours per day: 160 hours to code the thing.

But if you count the years I spent with DVE and all around Vectrex... ten times or hundred times of that figure!

MT> Is the real title for your game 'KAULQUAPPE' and does it really translate to 'tadpole'?

Ooops, want more? KARL QUAPPE is the name of the PC Frogger I made (my Ex-fiancee came up with it). The name is a play with words. Since KAULQUAPPE is the German word for tadpole. The Vectrex Frogger was just called "Vectrex Frogger" or "V-Frogger". KARL QUAPPE was made with German audience in mind, V-Frogger with world audience (ambitious!).

MT> What is your personal favorite Vectrex game?
CS> V-FROGGER :-) Simply because I did it, and I'm proud I did it, and I really like how it turned out. And because it was sort of a hard birth.

Original games: Minestorm (Probably I did most DVE testing with it. On the emulator I play it past level 13, on a real thing not :-()

MT> Any future plans for vectrex development?
CS> I have some vague ideas, like I just posted to the vectrex newsgroup. But nothing anyone should wait for. There are weeks, month even that I don't do vectrex'ish stuff. Than again comes a time I do something every day. Up to now it tends to recapture me again and again. (John? You too? I still remember you saying "this is my last Vectrex game", how many games ago was that?) Probably sooner or later I'll do another game. But I doubt it will be as grand as any other of the new games. And really, whats the point of doing it? The only reason I can think of is: Because I like doing it. Vectrex is a dead system. Regardless of us few who love it, and keep it going like no other dead system. There will never be a rebirth. And all the sweat we put into it is for our own sake, 'cause it feels good doing it. I doubt there are even a thousend people out there in the whole world who ever heard of a game called "V-Frogger". Doesn't matter though, I still love it!

MT> Have you considered creating new code for any other classic systems?
CS> Yep! Started doing a VCS 2600 game. Jumpman. The man sprite is drawn, can be controlled via Joystick, and the first level is drawn. Something came up... and I never finished it. But sometimes I look at it, and I'm intrigued by it ... probably some day I'll finish it.

I did think about Intellivision. I have the emulator CD and some development stuff I found on the net. But never had time to follow...

Same thing with Odyssey. Somehow I find these old things fascinating. Probably same as John.

MT> Any comic or catastrophic tales to tell from creating V-Frogger?
CS> Well the whole tale has already been told. The only comic thing I may think of now, are the names in the greetings: FIDPO, FILLY, FUMOS, and FUBO. These four are toy animals of mine I really like (German: "Steifftiere") My girlfriend and I keep those animals alive by talking with them, feeding them and giving each of them a personality of their own. Much like RPG. They are alltogether lovely, greedy little animals. It started of on christmas some years back. I rescued FIDPO from a toy shop. For rescuing her from the toy shop she loves me beyond anything else. Though I gave her as a present to my girlfriend. The owner naturally has to feed her. But she has most affection for me :-). After a while she got a husband FUMOS. It is not difficult to keep them apart, FIDPO is a bit bigger and green. FUMOS has brown covering. After a while two little ones appeared (FILLY a girl child, and FUBO a boy child). We never found out where FIDPO had layed her eggs. The little ones just appeared (doesn't FIDPO trust me anymore?). My mother brought them with her from a trip to Berlin. So we have family of turtles now :-)!

And if you think I'm crazy ... I won't deny it! (PS. These names also appear in Moon Lander, 'cause since I finished it, some of my personal code is also in there :-))

The next question is a looooong one, but very fascinating ... recommend taking a bathroom break before proceeding (MT) >>

MT> Technically, how did you create V-Frogger?
CS>Vectrex frogger does always refresh with 50Hz. All drawing is done in 30000 cycles or less. There are some notes below on optimization techniques used to accomplish that. Actually I'm quite proud of the speed I accomplished! It might be possible that the sprite functions are the fastest that exist in any vectrex game. (at least I would like to think so...)

The sprites look a bit peculiar on a real vectrex, a bit dotted, but one can get used to that. They are 'dotted' because I used a fixed scale factor of 6 for every sprite. If I wanted to draw a long line, I had to use several small ones. And vectrex by nature doesn't allways turn the light off at exactly the right time (actually at least 2 - 3 cycles later), AND it allways turns the light on a few cycles before starting to draw... This always results in a bright spot (one could naturally write some new (non timer using) vector draw function, which would use some other form of calculating the time, and be thus more exact, but who would want to do a thing like that?).

Vectrex frogger was partly intended to serve as a well documented vectrex program to help teach others how to program the machine. I think I failed with that. Because of the huge amount of vectors that had to be drawn in a tiny timeframe, it was neccessary to optimize for every cycle I could lay my hands on to (in time critical parts anyway). Because of that optimizing I guess the program is not well readable anymore. In the main program loop only one BIOS function is still used (ask for digital joystick position). Every other one used BIOS function was subsequently removed and replaced by optimized (for the required situation) macros or routines specifically for the thing I had to do. All this is highly confusing to get into, especially since I didn't program it in the first place.

NOTE: One optimization technique used was: preface: Explaining how to place and draw a vector. ... Well anyway, to move the beam to a required position, you set the speed and direction of the beam and the time for how long the speed should be applied. Than you wait for the 'how long' to end. The 'how long' is the scale factor you set. If you set a scale factor of $90. This value gets written to the timer 1 and is waited for in an highly iddle loop! What I did was to un'iddle' that loop. Many calculations are done by vectrex frogger in that normally 'iddle' time. Note: I did that mainly with the 'move to' functionality. The nice thing is even if I had done to much in that iddle time, it doesn't matter! The only thing you have to watch out for is that you don't take less time than the timer value. But that is easily accomplished by a time request loop at the end of your own calculations. Note: You could use the same technique while drawing a vector. Drawing a vector and positioning the beam are the same thing. The only difference is the 'pattern' that is set in the SHIFT_REGISTER. On positioning that is '0', on drawing that is '$ff' (if you wanted to draw a solid line that is). But with drawing you should make sure that you switch the beam off in time (moving 0 to shift), otherwise you have a bright dot at the end of your vector!

Another optimization was (see below) to write a specific vector list draw function (macro). Any cycle saved there was gold. See, if I draw 30 sprites, and each sprite consists of, say 20 vectors. That makes about 600 vectors. If I can write an optimized vector list draw function, which saves about 10 cycles per vector, we have saved with one 'hit' about 6000 cycles!!!

And another NEW one. Loop unrolling! Actually I use that techinque all the time with my Watcom C programs, I just didn't think about implementing it myself. I tried my luck unrolling the vector list draw function. Strike! I saved more than 10 cycles for EACH vector! That gives me another speed hit of nearly 3.000 cycles! I just unrolled one loop, the main one for sprite drawing. The other major sprite loop (for home sprites) remains as yet untouched, but if I was to optimize all loops that way, I could probably get another increase of 500 to 1.000 cycles. But a major drawback with this remains. It makes the program considerably longer! Well, can't have it all, can you?

Another one, not implemented, because there seems to be no need anymore. But implementing a new kind of vector list, that includes scale information might again save some cycles, since many long lines are drawn now doing small lines. One could save a major overhead, if one could include a second length variable in the vector list.

Note: The assembler I used is VERY good. For optimization be sure to look at the *.lst file it produces. There are all cycle information and length of instructions listed, as well as the code... really very nice :-)

Object definition (this is specific for the routines used in vectrex frogger)
All displayed 'items' in the game are called now objects. These objects consist of two different entities, the vector list and the object definition structure. The vector list is the day to day vectrex vector list. First the number of vectors (minus 1), than relative vector coordinates (offsets).

For easier collision detection these vector lists should all start at the leftmost point. In an earlier version of the sprite routine it was neccessary for them to be closed, that is not needed anymore. Following is an example of the object structure (taken from vectrex frogger, first otter object).


DB 0 ; speed + direction
DW otter1a_sprite ; graphic definition
DB 0 ; length in SCALE_FACTOR_GAME
DB 5 ; anim delay value
DW otter1b_object ; pointer to next anim object
DB -4 ; offsets y in 'SCALE_IN_HOME', since this is a home object
DB 0 ; offsets x in 'SCALE_IN_HOME', since this is a home object
DB $60 ; brightness
DB 0 ; special flag

Note: The sprites are drawn with a fixed scale factor of 6 (that might change in future versions, I'm thinking about a new vector list, that includes scaling information...).

Due to highly optimzed draw routines this cannot (and should not) be altered. In fact these routines are so optimized, they don't draw exactly anymore.

There are two faults:
- the last vector in the list is cut off 2-4 cycles to early
- between objects in the object list (not yet explained...) we always do a zeroing of the vector beam.

This zeroing is not 100% correctly done (only 98% or so :-)). In fact the routine is slightly to fast. The vector beam has not time enough to reach zero (as a matter of fact I allready slowed the routine down for about 4 or 5 cycles, but it was not enough...). This results in an (bearly noticable) inaccuracy in the object positioning.

Emulator notes:
Vectrex frogger works OK on the emulator. But note!!!:
The optimizing was done using a real vectrex, the emulator can as yet not cope with many fiddlings that were neccessary to test the routines. They work ok as they are now. But if you do your own optimization be sure to have a vectrex handy, otherwise you will be very dissapointed if the real thing is completely different. Especially timing should be considered dangerous. The emulator does many things at once, where the real vectrex takes it's time. So for example beam zeroing, and accessing any VIA register... There are many interesting e-functions to watch on your vectrex screen :-)! (as the capcitors of the integrators load and unload...)


My history programming vectrex, and vectrex frogger is special.

First, I was interested in vectrex since 1983, but I never had the money to buy the thing. In 1996 I thought I might try my programming skills and write a vectrex emulator. But Keith Wilkins also thought that might be the way to go. He released his sourcecode at a point where I had only done preliminary stuff towards my emulator, so I dropped it, and looked at Keith's sources. Over the next 2 years I improved his emulator in some relations, and I guess I'm now sort of in charge of the thing. A few months ago I thought it would be fun to turn DVE into a development environmenmt for vectrex, 'cause I thought that emulation by now was good enough for that (though it is not, I know now, and possibly never will, unless Pentiums III 500Mhz are released soon, and at a reasonable price). I scanned the internet again for all references concerning programming the machine in order to find out what would be needed for a programmer. Little enough was found. Some disassambled game images, well documented though. Stuff from Clay and John, though both not all that well documented (especially yours, John). There was no 'real' programming information available. So I thought I must figure stuff out by my own. I sat down one day and tried to write my first vectrex game, VPONG. That was written in about 4-5 hours, and for a beginner it worked remarkable well, although it is by no means a noticable game achievment (single player and pretty hard). But all basic stuff was put into it - sound, vectors, text, joystick, buttons, scaling, fading and so on. The following week the idea of vectrex frogger made its way to my head, and a first prototype of a sprite engine evolved from that. That was the time I made the 'discovery' that scaling with high values is a really bad idea.

At that time I thought about the speed of my program, and my goal was to do one update round in at least 70.000 cycles, otherwise I'd give the whole thing up. I figured doing the thing in 70.000 cycles would result in an update sequency of about greater 20 Hz per second, flickery, but still doable. At that time I already had a vectrex, but it was not hooked up to my computers parallel port (thank God, had I made the connection at that point, I'd given up the whole idea pretty soon). I experimented with those scaling values and discovered, that a high scaling value resulted in update rounds above 100.000 cycles. Doing a bit of more testing revealed, that low scaling values would do the job nicely, and I was down to about 50.000 cycles. (by the way, being the one in charge off the emulator really helps at some time, I wrote an emulator monitor function for cycle measurement at that point, and I only had to type 'rc' and it would throw out the cycles needed per update round :-)) (now it is pretty clear what the scaling really does, since it is a timer... but back than I knew that too, but I didn't really realize what it meant) Anyway, I had a working sprite engine on my hands and all kinds of strange vector plottings moved around the screen in a Frogger manner. My sprite rou tines already supported animation at that point, but after doing two or three sprites I really grew bored with it. I drew out the sprites on a paper with a pencil and translated the coordinates to vectrex coordinates. Doing that for a large number of sprites is really !$"$"&!"$&=!!! Luckily I found a friend in search for a new project to do and I persuaded him to make a small vector draw program, which would save the coordinates in a way I could handle them easily with my routines. James (my friend), made the vector drawing program, and I continued with the main program. Quickly a joystick and collision detection routine was put together. The first game of Frogger (early stages) could be played after three days of programming, though you could not enter a home nor were any special features implemented. Again I grew a bit tired doing the Frogger thing. I moved on to some routines I though about on a bus trip home from work. Routines which I generously call 'morphing' routines. I had the idea, that two sets of vector lists could be slowly changed from one set to the other, and that it would result in a neat effect. I pondered that idea a bit and discovered, that the 6809 had no DIV functions, and that the MUL is unsigned. I made these two functions and wrote the two still available morphing routines (setup and do_one_step). Ooops, they were really slow, doing divide and mul via selfcoded subroutines many many times per frame really takes its toll, let me tell you. I soon replaced the div function with an optimized versions, that would be assigned as needed. I still had a morphing function which could morph with any number (8 bit) of steps. That still was to slow for any use. After many optimizations I made the now implemented 16 step morph routine, for a fixed number of steps (16). This is the function which is used upon startup and in some intermission sequences. That finished I looked at the sound, I always wondered what notes were which, until I figured it out eventually. (vectrex BIOS related I mean) Note: I cannot read any notes, and I'm everything, but no musician. I searched the internet one day for notes for 'the yankee doodle', but naturally I couldn't find any. I ended up with a midi file. I searched again for a midi play/editor. I finally found one, that would output the songs notes in some readable way. After these notes and some heavy testing I 'wrote' the yankee doodle music for frogger. For me that was a great feat indead!!! First of, I wanted a drum giving the measure of the theme, but that somehow sounded pretty bad. The way the song is played now, it uses three voices, with an octave offset in each voice. Sounds ok with me, but I wouldn't recocgnize any errors anyway :-(. Now it was about time to make a couple of features. That was stuff I was pretty afraid of, since it ment fiddling with code already done, and tweaking new features (bug filled, for sure) into it. These features were flies, crocodiles, snakes, girls, timer, otter, diving turtles... I closed my eyes and did program them all, but I didn't like a minute of it. Actually I hated it. But these were things I had to do in order for Frogger to be Frogger. These damn fiddlings with stupid timer variables, whether a fly appears, checking coordinates over and over again, if frog is near a snakes head, or if that turtle we just a sec befor were safely standing on turned into a poodle of water... I hated it. But I did it (as you can see). But it all took it's toll. Frogger was slow going, it was pretty close to those 70.000 cycles again. This was about the time I got the eprom card for my vectrex, and I checked some other games, and I discovered, that slow games flicker a lot :-(, and I really didn't like that. I still could not input my Frogger to vectrex, since I was still missing the ordered EPROM EMULATOR, but I had some EPROMs and I watched them... I was pretty ancious to see Frogger on a real vectrex at that point, but I couldn't, and I didn't find anyone with an EPROM burner either. But I figured Frogger was way to slow as it was, so I went looking for optimizations and compromizations. First thing I did was remove the scoring, live and level indicators from the main screen. Would you believe that one call of that stupid 'print string' function took more than 10.000 cycles! Further I edited all sprites, cut them down from using over twenty vectors to using about 10-15 vectors, that resulted in another speed hit of about 10.000 cycles. (I hated editing all sprites again!) (the turtle you see in the scroll text is a ancestor of the turtles you see in the game btw.) After that I was kind of confident that I could still reach my timing goal. My goal now was to be able to draw every frame within 50.000 cycles, since all measurement done with avaiable (once) commercial games suggested, that this value would prove to be still ok, as many games go even beyond that range.

Still waiting for that EPROM EMULATOR thing. Having some time to spare, I thought that a scroll text would be a nice thing to implement. Having done a nearly complete frogger, with 10 lanes of moving sprites, I figured, that doing one lane of moving letters wouldn't be that difficult. And actually after drawing all the letters 3 or 4 times (the vector drawing program had a serious bug at that stage), and spending some nerves at that, I completed that pretty soon. But another problem arose at that stage. Vectrex has only so much RAM! And having the level and sprite information and much other needed variables in RAM, and wanting to do some morphing and still be able to provide a scroll text proved to be another challenge. I re-arranged my ram division, and occupied several ram locations double or triple times. That also was done, but I had second thoughts about the easyness of programming vectrex by then.

Still waiting for that EPROM EMULATOR thing. So I just waited and time went by without doing any changes to the program. For a couple of weeks I didn't do anything, since final testing would have to be done on a real vectrex. ...

Finally it arrived, hooked it up and... it didn't work :-( Did some testing... Yep it worked all right, but the eprom cartridge I had only had address lines supporting eproms up to 8 KB, Frogger by than was already beyond that range, so I couldn't play my game :-( (though nearly all other vectrex games, for the first time). I cried loudly for help, 'cause I'm not a technical person, I wouldn't know how to alter the cartridge for it to work with 16KB (or 32KB) EPROMS. John heard my cries and sent me a couple of EPROM cartridges, which work just great (but another 2 weeks went by). Just beeing able to access 8KB was not so bad for a start, since I could split Frogger up into a couple of sections and test them one after another, though I couldn't see the game with all features, it was enough for some testing.

At that point I encountered a heavy WOBBLE effect, that the emulator can as yet not produce. I did some exploration and discovered that this was a time related thing. The wobbling for now, mainly was seen at the startup. And only when 'fixed' vectors were drawn, animated or moving vectors somehow were sort of imune to it. (strange?) Anyway, after some hairs turned gray, I realized, that if an update round took more than 30.000 cycles, fixed vectors tend to wobble (at least with my vectrex). It was not only my game that was effected by this, but nearly all games that have fixed vectors at some point and take more than 30.000 cycles to complete an update round. Even minestorm, the inbuilt game, is effected. When the game starts up, than for a few seconds, when the first mines appear on the screen, the dots wobble (with my vectrex, which is the only one I can test everything on). Once you know how to look out for that effect, you discover it pretty often. Needless to say, that I as a perfectionist didn't like that at all. Other games can wobble like they want, but not my game, and certainly not at the startup screen, the first thing you will see when starting the game. (I still don't know what causes the effect, any technical information on that topic is appreciated. I thought the only thing that would happen if I took to long to complete my update round was a flickery effect. But even if I set the 'wait recalibration' timer to a higher value than the BIOS 30000 cycles, fixed vectors DO WOBBLE! I think there is a second FIX point, somewhere in the 50.000 but the flicker at that stage is not very well tolerable)

I changed my code, so that 'VECTREX FROGGER' text and the other stuff do not appear at the same time on the screen (that stupid text also takes about 5.000-6.000 cycles to draw). The wobble (at startup) was history. Than I noticed another effect :-( (which still is seen on a real vectrex, since I couldn't fix it in any clever manor). My vectrex coordinates always drift slowly to +,+ (upper, right). If you leave the vector beam alone for long enough it will go to the upper right. When drawing the large frog at the startup it takes quite a while to complete the large vector list, at the large scale factor used. It takes about 2000-3000 cycles to completly draw the huge frog. In that time the vector beam drifts for about half a centimeter. What should be done, is to recalibrate the beam between the drawings, that would fix the problem. But there is not enough time to spare :-( (the frog consists of 63 vectors, positioning 63 vectors with the given scale, in any non time critical way IS impossible! (63 * $90 = 9000 pure moving time, without overhead 63 * $70 = 7000 pure drawing the vectors, without overhead overhead = 1000 cycles that is about 17.000 just for the frog, and I still want a scroll text, and the frog's morphing must be calculated!)). Furthermore a fixed offset cannot be given, since this drift is not a constant. It depends on the mood of my vectrex (it is after all an old analog machine). So the frog looks ok on the emulator (if no drift is set), but on a real vectrex the frog has a lose end. It bothers me a bit, but cannot easily be fixed!

Apart from that everything seemed to work out just fine. I did a couple of weeks not program any vectrex Frogger (and didn't really miss it, after doing work for some time, I tend to be glad to have it off my back eventually). One fine day Johns cartridges finally arrived. Tried Frogger... and it worked!!! (badly :-() Somehow it escaped me before, that in the game there are also fixed 'wobble' vectors. And they DID wobble :-(. At that point I was ready to drop the whole thing. I had been glad I achieved the 50.000 cycle goal after only wanting 70.000. But that seemed by far not enough. In order to lose the wobble, there was no other way than to have go for 30.000 cycles. I experimented some time to get rid of the fixed vectors, invented 'moving' homes, and patterned lines for the middle stuff and the like. But it didn't really help. I WAS quite dissapointed. My girlfriend tried to cheer me up and said 'it isn't that bad' but in my view it was. I wanted to do a well done full vectrex Frogger game, WITHOUT compromising wobble effects.

I thought about changing all the sprites to again less vector usage, but that would have resulted in Atari 2600 like sprites, more guess work than any discernable objects. So I droped that notion. Than I had a first tentive go at using the DP register (which before was always set to D0). Introducing that more or less cleverly and some other optimization, saved me about 1000 to 2000 bytes of code. That enabled me again to 'inline' some BIOS functions, and after optimizing the now inlined functions. I allready achieved another save of 10.000 cycles. I was at 40.000, but at a loss as how further optimization could be done. Going step by step through the code and looking at the *.lst file the assembler produced and looking for neck breaking cycle busters in critical positions... doing that for a day and a half... allways saving in little steps 10-20 sometimes even 100 cycles... I was down to about 37.000 cycles. Still a long way to go, and every further step would be more difficult. Having a break... playing a nice round of Diddy Kong on my N64 (yep, I have some other video consoles beside the vectrex), an idea formed in my head... why not use the wait loops of the positioning or drawing functions for something more usefull than just waiting for timer to expire? Said and done (after 2 days fiddling, nerve breaking draw backs and dissapointments implementing too fast functions, encountering e-functions on the vectrex screen, weird effects and and and...), I saved another 5.000 cycles! (this is pretty fast said here, but this was really a nerve breaking experience, for more information look at the top of this text file and/or at the source itself!) Anyway I was at about 32.000 (always worse case, with all 4 houses occupied, girl, crocodile, otter and snakes displayed...). After that I couldn't think of any more optimizing stuff. I edited all levels, changed them and removed sprites, exchanged sprites, disabled features, ... and so on, the levels still have their character I gave them from start, but most are slightly changed (some were even OK). But after that, I finally made it!!!


Actually I'm very proud of my achievment. And I consider Vectrex Frogger by now to be an outstanding vectrex program.

Perhaps that is just vanity on my side, but I put much effort into Vectrex Frogger, and I hope people enjoy the game, and perhaps some people might even find the source code helpfull and/or informative.

Another optimization hits the scene! I unrolled a couple of loops, speed hit about 3.000 cycles! Hip Hip Hooray. I'll unchange all levels and they will still be under 30.000 cycles... By now I have even about 1.500 cycles to spare:-)

A BIG thanks Chris for taking the time to so thoroughly answering our inquiries!
Visit Chris's Website



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